Please write 400 words each topic
2-2. The Shiji 史記 (Records of the Historian) chapter “The Hereditary House of Kongzi” 孔子世家, says:
The whole age may be reined in by applying these [judgments] to like categories. If at some point in the future a ruler can promote and make clear implications of disparagement and belittlement [in the Spring and Autumn Annals], putting into practice the meaning of the Spring and Autumn Annals, then chaotic ministers and thieving viscounts will fear them.
Explain what this means, and how future rulers might use the Spring and Autumn Annals to govern China like a sage. To which Han images of Kongzi is this view of the text connected?
2-3. The Tang scholar Han Yu 韓愈 (768-824 CE) wrote:
The Buddha was originally a tribesman from outlying regions. His language was incomprehensible to those who inhabit the heartland, and his clothes were of a strange fashion. He did not speak the exemplary words of the early kings, and he did not wear the exemplary garb of the early kings. He did not understand the sense of right that exists between a ruler and his officers, nor the feelings between father and son.
Han Yu condemns the Buddha’s teachings, echoing the Mengzi’s 孟子 condemnations of Yang Zhu 楊朱 and Mozi 墨子 as 無父無君 “acknowledging neither a ruler or a father.” First, did Mozi and Buddha allegedly deny “the feelings between father and son” in the same way? Second, what does Han Yu’s condemnation reveal about how he believed Tang Confucians pursued fundamentally different goals than Tang Buddhists, and how might a Chinese Buddhist respond to defend the relevance of the teachings of the Buddha?